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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions From Trade to Territory
Extra Questions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory
NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions Very Short Answers Type
Who was the last powerful Mughal ruler?
How did the Mughal empire become weak?
After Aurangzeb’s death, many Mughal governors began establishing their own regional kingdoms. This weakened Mughal empire.
When and where was the East India Company established?
The East India Company was established in 1600, in England.
Who gave a Charter to the Company to trade with the East?
Queen Elizabeth I.
What did the Charter mean?
The Charter meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the East India Company.
Which western power came first to India?
Who discovered the sea route to India and when?
Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498.
Where was the Portuguese base in India?
In India, the Portuguese base was in Goa.
Through which route the British came to India?
The British came to India through the Cape of Good Hope (South of Africa).
Name the two European powers other than British and Portuguese who established trade links with India.
Dutch and French.
What were the major trade items for the European piowers?
Cotton and silk textiles – pepper, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, etc.
When and where was the first English factory set up?
The first English factory was set up in 1651 on the bank of the river Hugli.
What were the Company’s traders known as?
The Company’s traders were known as ‘factors’.
Which Mughal Emperor granted the Company the right to trade duty free through farman?
Aurangzeb, through his farman, granted the right to the Company to trade duly free.
Name the Nawabs of Bengal who asserted their power and autonomy against the Mughals.
(i) Murshid Quli Khan
(ii) Alivardi Khan
Who were the two sides in the Battle of Plassey?
The two sides in the Battle of Plassey were the Nawab of Bengal and the East India Company.
Which Nawab of Bengal was defeated in the Battle of Plassey?
Who led the Company in the Battle of Plassey?
Why did the Battle of Plassey become famous?
The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory, the Company won in India.
Name the Commander who deceited Siraj uddaulah in the Battle of Plassey.
Why was Mir Jafar deposed by the Company? Who was made the new Nawab?
Mir Jafar was deposed by the Company because he was unwilling to do as per the Company’s directions. Mir Qasim was made the new Nawab.
Which Nawab was defeated in the Battle of Buxar?
When was the Battle of Buxar fought?
Who made Company the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal and when?
The Mughal Emperor, in 1765.
What did Diwani to the Company mean?
Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
Why was Robert Clive cross-examined by the British Parliament?
Robert Clive was cross-examined by the British Parliament on the charges of corruption and amassing huge wealth in India during his service period.
What was the role.of Residents appointed by the Company in the Indian states?
Through the Residents, the Company tried to interfere in the internal affairs of Indian states.
Name any two Indian states which fell victim to the subsidiary alliance.
Awadh and Hyderabad.
Who was Hyder Ali?
Hyder Ali was the ruler of the state of Mysore.
Which foreign power helped Tipu modernise his army?
The French helped Tipu modernise his army.
How many wars were fought between the state of Mysore and the British?
In which battle was Tipu Sultan killed?
Tipu Sultan was killed in the Battle of Seringapatam.
In which battle the Marathas were defeated by the Company?
The Marathas were defeated in the third Battle of Panipat in 1761.
Name the Maratha dynasties.
Name two famous Maratha statesmen of the late eighteenth century.
Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis.
Name the Governor-General who initiated the policy of “paramountcy”.
What was the policy of paramountcy?
Under this policy, Company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, hence its power was greater than that of Indian states.
Who was Chennamma?
She was Queen of Kitoor in Karnataka.
Who was Rayanna?
Rayanna was a poor chowkidar of Sangoli in Kitoor who revolted against the British.
When wds Punjab annexed by the Company?
Name the Governor-General who brought the Doctrine of Lapse.
Name any four Kingdoms annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse.
How many Presidencies were there in the British India? Name them.
There were three Presidencies:
Who was the first Governor-General of India?
Who presided over the civil and criminal courts?
The District Collector.
When was the Supreme Court established?
The Supreme Court was established in 1773 under the provisions of Regulating Act.
Which new technology aided the Company to become a territorial colonial power?
New steam technology.
NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions Short Answers Type
What facilities did the Company get through the Royal Charter?
With this Charter:
(i) The Company could venture across the oceAnswer:.
(ii) The Company could look for new lands from which it could collect revenues.
(iii) The Company could buy goods at cheap price and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
(iv) The Company had no Competitor from England.
Why did the European Companies conflict with each other?
(i) They were trade competitors.
(ii) The only way the trading Companies could flourish, was by eliminating rival competitors.
(iii) The urge to secure markets, therefore, led to fierce battles between the trading Companies.
How did the farman issued by Aurangzeb cause loss of revenue for Bengal?
(i) Aurangzeb’s farman had granted the Company the right to trade without paying duties.
(ii) But the Company officials who were carrying individual trade also refused to pay duty. This caused enormous loss of revenue for Bengal.
Why did Sirajuddaulah capture Kassimbazar factory of the British?
(i) The Company was meddling in the political affairs of the province.
(ii) The Company was involved in fortification of its settlement.
(iii) The Company was not paying revenues properly.
What was the main reason that Sirajuddaulah lost the Battle of Plassey to the British?
(i) One of the main reasons for the defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Zafar, one of the Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the battle.
(ii) Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.
Why were the Company officials called ‘nabobs’ in Britain?
(i) The officials who managed to return with wealth led flashy lives in Britain and.they flaunted their riches.
(ii) They were ridiculed as ‘nabobs’ the anglicized version of the Indian word nawab.
Why did the British want to capture Mysore?
Following were the reasons:
(i) Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar coast where the Company purchased pepper and cardamom.
(ii) Tipu stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom.
(iii) He disallowed the local merchants from trading with the Company.
Explain the resistance shown by the state of Kitoor against the British annexation.
(i) When the British tried to annex Kitoor, Rani Chennamma took arms and led an armed struggle against the British. But she was captured and died in prison.
(ii) Later a poor chowkidar Rayanna carried the resistance. He captured many British camps and destroyed them.
What was Doctrine of Lapse? On what pretext did the Company annex Awadh?
(i) According to this doctrine, if an Indian ruler dies without a male heir, his kingdom would ‘lapse’, i.e., his kingdom would become the part of the Company.
(ii) The Company annexed Awadh under the pretext that it was freeing the people from the misgovemment of the Nawab.
What did the British do to secure their control over the north-west?
(i) To secure their control over the north-west, the Company fought wars with Afghanistan.
(ii) Between 1838 and 1842, the Company fought wars with Afghanistan and established its rule there indirectly.
(iii) It also annexed Sindh in 1843.
What was the Doctrine of Lapse?
According to this doctrine, if an Indian ruler dies without a male heir, his kingdom would ‘lapse’ i.e. his kingdom would become the part of the Company.
NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions Long Answers Type
Discuss the reason that led to fierce battles between the European trading Companies in India.
(i) The European Companies were interested in buying the same things.
(ii) The fine qualities of Indian silk and cotton had a big market in Europe. Pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand.
(iii) Competition amongst the European companies increased the cost of these goods that reduced the profit-margin.
The only way to retain profit was to eliminate the rivals. Thus, the urge to secure market led to fierce battles between European trading Companies in India.
How did the East India Company benefit from the Diwani granted by the Mughal Emperor?
(i) The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
(ii) The Company had no British goods to sell in India. So, it had to import gold and silver from Britain for purchasing Indian goods. Now, the revenue obtained through Diwani could be used to purchase goods.
(iii) Further, the revenue could be used to maintain Company troops and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
Discuss the Anglo-Maratha wars?
(i) The first Anglo-Maratha war ended in 1782 with the Salbai treaty without any result.
(ii) The second war (1803-05) resulted in the British gaining Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna river including Agra and Delhi.
(iii) The third Anglo-Maratha war (181719) ended the Maratha might. The Peshwa was sent to Bithur with a pension.
Why did the British want to secure its north-west frontier? What did it do?
(i) The British had developed a fear that Russia might expand across Asia and enter India from the north-west.
(ii) This was because, the Company focused on north-west region and fought wars with Afghanistan, Sindh and Punjab.
(iii) The Company finally annexed Sindh. It established an indirect control over Afghanistan and in 1849, annexed Punjab.
Under the new British Administrative set up, the Office of Collector became prominent. Discuss.
(i) The Collector was the administrative head of the new administrative unit, i.e., district.
(ii) His main job was to collect revenue and taxes and maintain law and order.
(iii) In furnishing its duty, Collector took help of judges, police officers and darogas.
(iv) His office – the Collectorate – became the new centre of power and patronage that steadily replaced previous holders of authority.
Write a note on improvements made by Hastings in Indian Judiciary system.
(i) Each district had two courts – a criminal court and a civil court.
(ii) Maulvis and Pandits interpreted Indian laws before the European district Collectors who presided over Civil Courts. The Criminal Court was brought under the supervision of the Collector.
(iii) He got the Hindu and Muslim laws translated and codified.
(iv) A new Supreme Court was established at Calcutta under the Regulating Act.
(v) The Court of Appeal – the Sadar Nizamat Adalat was also set up at Calcutta.